Go to the previous, next section.

Data Display

Perhaps the most fundamental operation when handling and processing data is the ability to display the result at any stage. In UniPOPS, the fundamental facility for data display is through the verb SHOW. SHOW gives you the ability to plot the data in Array (0) as a function of channel number, choosing from a number of styles. It will draw and label the axes, add an amount of documentation, and choose the x and y scales. Other UniPOPS verbs allow you to superpose additional scans, baselines or fitted Gaussians on the plot, and to use the plot to feedback values for further processing. To display data in one of the other Arrays, you will need to COPY or MOVE the data to Array(0). See Section 5.11 and 5.12.

The verb PLOT allows you to plot graphs representing the quantity in Array (0) against that in Array (1).

The display of two-dimensional data (contour plots, half-tone plots and color displays) is completely covered in Section 16.7.

Clearing the Screen

Before plotting a scan, you usually want to clear the graphics screen. This is achieved via the verb PAGE. Thus, to provide yourself with a "fresh canvas", type,


Customizing the Display

SHOW has a number of possibilities to help you obtain the display you desire. These are,

Labeling the X-axis

LABELING THE X-AXIS : The x-axis of the display is labeled above and below the plot independently. New users or users looking for a quick answer may wish to skip ahead to the discussion on CV, CF, FV, etc, later in this section. Users desiring more flexibility should read on. The SAXIS verb allows you to select the combination of labeling that you prefer. SAXIS takes two arguments, the first indicates what you want to use for the lower x-axis and the second what you want for the upper. You use pointer adverbs as arguments to SAXIS to indicate your two choices. The pointer adverbs are:


Sample numbers
UT Time offset relative to start of observation.
LST Time
UT Time
Position offset relative to start of observation
Position along the x-axis of the observing coordinate system relative to starting x-axis position.
Position along the y-axis of the observing coordinate system relative to starting y-axis position.
Position along the x-axis of the observing coordinate system.
Position along the y-axis of the observing coordinate system.

Spectral Line:

Channel number
IF frequency offset from the center of the bandwidth.
Rest frequency.
Sky frequency.
Rest frequency in the image sideband (12-m only).
Sky frequency in the image sideband (12-m only).
Velocity in the reference system and definition stipulated in the spectra's header information.
Velocity using the radio definition of Doppler shifts.
Velocity using the optical definition of Doppler shifts.
Velocity using the relativistic definition of Doppler shifts.
Velocity assuming channels equally

For example, to specify you want relativistic velocities on the lower x-axis and image rest frequency on the upper, type,


The initial setting is, for CONDAR, time offset on the lower x-axis and position offset on the upper.

A set of nine verbs, CC, CF, CV, FC, FF, FV, VC, VF, and VV have been retained from previous versions of the program which allow you to select some of the more common combination of labeling that you prefer. They are equivalent to calls to SAXIS. The letters in the names of these verbs represent,

	For LINE:

	C - Channel number
	F - IF frequency offset from the center of the bandwidth.
	V - Radial velocity in the reference system and definition
	        stipulated in the spectra's header information.


	C - Sample number
	F - UT Time offset relative to start of observation.

V - Position offset relative to start of observation.

The first letter in the name defines the units for the lower x-axis, and the second letter defines those for the upper axis. In LINE, for example, VF is equivalent to SAXIS(VELOFF,FREQOFF). The initial setting is FV. Suppose you wish to label the lower axis by channel number, and the upper axis by frequency, then type,


   * NOTE : When displaying a velocity scale, the spacing of the tick   *
   *	    marks will be slightly non-linear, as should be the case    *
   *	    for equi-spaced frequency channels, except if the VELLINR   *
   *	    definition is used.			  			*
   *									*
   *        The units of the lower x-axis dictate the units returned    *
   *	    by various analysis verbs such as GMEASURE, MOMENT, GPARTS, *
   *        and GDISPLAY.  You should always make sure that the lower   *
   * 	    x-axis uses your desired definition.			*
   *									*
   *	    If the current scan has inadequate header information, 	*
   *	    UniPOPS may be unable to calculate x-axis values using your *
   *	    desired definition.  UniPOPS will usually perform the	*
   *	    calculation using as a backup definition either channel 	*
   *        number or sample number followed by a warning message.	*

Restricting the X-axis range

RESTRICTING THE X-AXIS RANGE : The portion of the scan to be plotted is limited using the adverbs BDROP and EDROP, where these define the number of channels ignored at the beginning and end of the scan when plotting. Suppose you wish to display only channels 100 to 200 in a 512-channel spectrum. Then type,

	>BDROP = 99 ; EDROP = 312

Alternatively, BDROP and EDROP can be set rather easily using the verb XRANGE. XRANGE takes two arguments, these being the minimum and maximum x-values it is desired to display, in the labeling units of the bottom axis of the plot. Suppose you want to plot the spectral region with radial velocities between -150 and -50 km/sec. Then type,

	>VF       [or VC, VV, or SAXIS(VELHEAD,VELHEAD), ... as desired]
	>XRANGE(-150., -50.)

Then, if you decide to display just spectral channels 100 to 250 instead, type,

	>CF       [or CV, CC, or SAXIS(CHANNEL,VELHEAD), ... as desired]
	>XRANGE(100, 250)

NOTE : Do not forget that XRANGE sets BDROP and EDROP.

Restricting the Y-axis range

RESTRICTING THE Y-AXIS RANGE : The scaling of the y-axis is controlled by the adverbs YMIN and YINCR. You can set these directly using assignment statements, i.e.,

	>YMIN = -25 ; YINCR = 30

If YMIN is set to -9999, or less, then SHOW will automatically scale the display to fit the full y-range of the scan. If YMIN is greater than -9999, then this adverb dictates the minimum antenna temperature included in the plot, while YINCR specifies the increment between the tick marks on the y-axis. The initial value of YMIN (-9999) gives automatic scaling.

While the y-axis scaling can be set via the adverbs YMIN and YINCR directly, for user-selected scaling it is much simpler to use the verb YRANGE to set these adverbs. YRANGE takes two arguments, these being the minimum and maximum values of antenna temperature that will appear on the plot. Suppose, it is required to plot only spectral values between -10 and +40 deg K. Then type,

	>YRANGE(-10., +40.)

Further, if you have fixed the y-scale of the plot, either by assigning values to YMIN and YINCR, or by the use of YRANGE or HOLDY (see just below), then the simplest way to return to automatic scaling for SHOW is to invoke the verb FREEY. FREEY sets YMIN to an appropriate value (-90000) for automatic scaling. Thus, in the above circumstances, to return to automatic scaling, just type,


The opposite case often arises where you wish to "freeze" the y-range SHOW has produced in automatic scaling mode. An example of this would be where it is desired to plot a series of scans on the same scale. To achieve this, after plotting, invoke the verb HOLDY, i.e.,


The y-scaling will then be retained until either the scaling is reset by assignment or YRANGE, or FREEY are invoked.

The y-axis always represents the magnitude of the data values in the scan (usually antenna temperature).

Plotting style

PLOTTING STYLE : You can choose between various plotting styles. These are selected through any of the three verbs HISTOGRAM, LINE or POINTS. HISTOGRAM presents the familiar "box-style" histogram display, LINE connects adjacent data points with a line segment, while POINTS plots just the unconnected data values as crosses. The default style is HISTOGRAM.

Displaying the baseline-fitting range

DISPLAYING THE BASELINE-FITTING RANGE : One can add a set of boxes to the plot showing over which ranges of x the most recent baseline fitting was made (see Section 7.1). Such boxes are added to the plot by setting the adverb BMARK (initial value = FALSE) to TRUE, i.e. by typing,


To disable the facility again, type,


Drawing X-Y lines or grids

Horizontal and/or vertical lines, and x-y grids can be drawn on a plot in various ways. These are,

Placement of documentation

You can decide where to place the scan number and source name on the plot using the adverb SLABEL (initial value = 1). With SLABEL = 0, no labeling of tick marks, or documentation, is added to the plot. If SLABEL = 1, then the above information is printed at the bottom of the display. For SLABEL = 2, the scan number appears at the right-most edge of the scan. This final option is useful when a number of scans are being superposed on a plot (see below).

Using the Cross Hairs (Cursors)

Both x and y cross hairs, or cursors, can be activated, allowing you to determine positions and antenna temperatures at any point on the currently-displayed scan. The cursors can also be used to feed values into UniPOPS adverbs. Cursor applications to two-dimensional images will be dealt with in Section 16.7.8.


To identify the x-position and brightness (antenna temperature) at any point in a plot, the verb CROSSHAIR can be invoked, causing the cross hairs to appear on the display. The mouse is then used to guide the intersection of the cross hairs to the desired point. Clicking right on the mouse will cause the printing of as much information as the antenna temperature, channel number, frequency and radial velocity for LINE, or antenna temperature, sample number, position and time for CONDAR, corresponding to that x-position. You control how much information is displayed using the CROSSFLG adverb. The default value of CROSSFLG instructs CROSSHAIR to display as much information as it can. Once activated, the cross hairs can be used as often as required, and then removed by clicking left.


Values can be assigned directly from the current plot to either adverbs, or verb arguments, using the cursors via the function verbs TCUR (to provide an antenna temperature), CCUR (for a channel number in LINE or sample number in CONDAR), FCUR (for a frequency offset in LINE, or a time offset in CONDAR) or VCUR (for a radial velocity (header definition) in LINE, or a position offset in CONDAR). (For XCUR and YCUR to get x-y pixel positions, see Section 6.4 below.) When any of these four verbs are used in an assignment statement, the appropriate cursor appears and, after its positioning via the mouse, clicking either left or right will enter the current value "under" the cursor. Suppose it is required to set a restricted y-range for the antenna temperatures to be plotted, this can be done via calls to TCUR by typing,


The cross hairs will then appear, the horizontal cursor should be placed at the minimum required temperature, and you should click (say) left. The cursor will vanish, then immediately reappear and should be moved to the maximum required temperature, followed by a final click left.

To illustrate setting adverbs, the adverbs BDROP and EDROP can be set from the plot by typing,


One then proceeds as just described, except that in this case it is the vertical cursor that should be positioned twice. Other examples of using the cursor verbs are to be found in Section 7.3.

The two function verbs, XCUR and YCUR, can be used to return the pixel position of the vertical or horizontal cross hair respectively. They are used exactly as CCUR, FCUR, TCUR and VCUR.

The following table describes for LINE and CONDAR the quantities returned by these different cursor functions,

     |  Function Verb  | LINE                  |   CONDAR        |
     |   CCUR          | Channel Number        | Sample Number   |
     |   FCUR          | Frequency Offset      | Time Offset     |
     |   TCUR          | Brightness            | Brightness      |
     |   VCUR          | Radial Velocity       | Position Offset |
     |                 | (header definition)   |                 |
     |   XCUR          | x-pixel               | x-pixel         |
     |   YCUR          | y-pixel               | y-pixel         |


The CLICK verb sets seven adverbs (CCLICK, FCLICK, TCLICK, VCLICK, XCLICK, and YCLICK) with a single click of the mouse button (the cursor is drawn on the graphics screen and you are asked to click the mouse button). This is equivalent to executing each of the 7 function verbs shown above at the same point on the graphics screen with a single click of the mouse (as opposed to the seven it would have taken with the cursor function verbs). The first letter of the CLICK adverb indicates what function verb that corresponds to.

For example, you want to set the first element of the HEIGHT array adverb and CENTER array adverb to the value of the peak of a feature and the location (channel number) of that peak so that you can fit a Gaussian to it (see Chapter 7). You type:


You follow the instructions and click the mouse button to indicate when the cursor is positioned on the peak of the feature. You then type:


to set both values from a single mouse click. Using the function verbs in Section 6.3.2, this would be achieved with:


Annotating the Display

The UniPOPS graphic screen can be considered to consist of a 1024x800 pixel matrix. Any pixel on the screen can be referenced as an x-y coordinate pair. Four verbs (PLACE, VCTR, CHAR, and VCHAR) allow you to move the write cursor to any pixel, either in "pen up" (draw no line) or "pen down" (draw line) mode, and to write a character string to annotate the present plot. Two function verbs (XCUR and YCUR) allow you to determine the pixel coordinates of any position on the screen using the graphics cursors, and to set adverbs, or verb arguments, to these values.

The verb PLACE will move the write cursor to any point on the screen in "pen up" mode. PLACE takes two arguments, these being the x-y coordinates of the point of destination. A matching verb VCTR takes the same two arguments, but draws a straight line on the screen ("pen down" mode) as it moves from the current position to the point of destination.

The verb CHAR will print a string of characters horizontally on the screen, starting at the present position of the write cursor. CHAR takes as an argument a string literal or a string adverb (the maximum string length is 60 characters). The bottom left-hand corner of the first character is placed at the write cursor.

The verb VCHAR will print a string of characters vertically on the screen, starting at the present position of the write cursor. VCHAR takes two arguments. The first is a string literal or a string adverb (the maximum string length is 60 characters). The second is a flag which should have the value of TRUE or FALSE and which tells VCHAR whether the characters are to be rotated before plotting. If TRUE, the string will be printed from the current position of the write cursor up the screen with each character rotated counter-clockwise from the horizontal by 90 degrees. If FALSE, the string will be printed from the current write cursor position down the screen with no rotation. These are the two typical ways one wants to print vertical character strings.

For any character string drawn on the graphics page, the verb CHARSIZE can be invoked to change the size of the resultant characters. CHARSIZE takes one argument, this being the character size in "points", the DEFAULT value being 11 points. The limits for the character size are,

	0 points < character size <= 44 points

NOTES : 1) For many printers and types of graphics screens, you may not

	   get exactly the character size you desire due to device

	2) The character size is also affected by calls to RSTPAGE and
	   SETPAGE (see Section 6.8).

	3) For "11-points" characters, the dimensions on the screen of
	   the widest characters will be 14 pixels wide by 20 pixels

FONTSET allows you to change the character (font) used by the graphics screen and takes two arguments. The first is a number indicating which font you desire (a font number of 1 is the default), and the second is a TRUE or FALSE flag which tells FONTSET whether to use equally spaced or proportionally spaced characters. The available fonts, and their respective font numbers are:

	Font number	Font description
	   1 		(Default) Roman Simplex
	   2 		Greek Simplex
	   3 		Greek Gothic
	   4 		Italic Gothic
	   5 		English Gothic
	   6 		Roman Duplex
	   7 		Cyrillic Complex
	   8 		Script Complex
	   9 		Roman Complex
	   10		Italic Complex
	   11		Greek Complex
	   12		Roman Triplex
	   13		Italic Triplex
	   14		Special Symbols
	   15		Script Simplex

Appendix J describes how keyboard (ASCII) characters map into these various fonts.

Suppose you wish to label a new spectral feature on a plot by drawing a vertical line above it and then labeling it with "22-points" characters, type,

	># Place crosshairs above feature & click left or right once.

Now you want to place a vertical, rotated label using greek-simplex characters with proportional spacing:

	> PLACE(100,300)
	> VCHAR( 'a(1950)    d(1950)')
	> # Now, return to default font

Should you wish to add a caption to the display, this can be done using the pseudo verb DOCUMENT (must be the only command on the line), rather than CHAR. The output of DOCUMENT should have been directed to the screen by a previous call to GRAPHICS (see Section 12.3). DOCUMENT takes a single argument, which is the string it is required to print. For DOCUMENT, the string should NOT be enclosed in quotation marks. The write cursor is first moved to the required x- and y-value by a PLACE command.

Suppose it is wished to use DOCUMENT to write a caption at the top of the display, then type,

	># So DOCUMENT will direct its output to the graphics screen.
	>DOCUMENT This is a Caption.
	># So all future output will go to the text screen.

Superposition of Multiple Scans on one Plot

It is often desired to display two or more scans on a single plot. This can be done simply by using the verb RESHOW. RESHOW graphs just the data in Array (0), superposing it on top of an existing plot produced by SHOW. It uses the same y-scaling, and other parameters, as the previous call to SHOW.

Three verbs, analogous to HISTOGRAM, LINE and POINTS with SHOW, are available for setting the plot style for RESHOW. These three are RHIST, RLINE and RPOINTS. The initial RESHOW plot style (on login) is RLINE.

Suppose you wish to display the spectra of scans 1800 and 1820 on the same plot, using a connected line between points for the first spectrum, and plotting just crosses for the data of the second. Then type,

	>GET 1800
	>GET 1820

The Use of Color in Displays

Provided that you are working from an appropriate screen, the displays produced either by PLOT (see Section 6.9), SHOW and RESHOW, or through the two-dimensional display routines CONTOUR, QCONTOUR, HLFTNE and RASTER (see Section 16.7) can be produced in color.

The color to be used as standard for all types of display is set using the verb COLOR. COLOR takes three arguments and these can be used to assign a color in either the RGB (Red-Green-Blue), or the HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) systems. The three arguments take on the following meanings,

| System | Sign of Arg |     Arg 1     |   Arg 2    |  Arg 3     |
|  RGB   |  Negative   | Red Intensity | Green Int. | Blue Int.  |
|  HIS   |  Positive   |     Hue       | Intensity  | Saturation |

In the RGB system, you supply negative numbers for the arguments in the range, 0 > Arg > -17. The intensity of the color varies from, -1 = absent, to -16 = maximum intensity. Shades of gray are produced by setting all three arguments to the same negative numbers as in,

	>COLOR(-1, -1, -1)
	># Set Black
	>COLOR(-10, -10, -10)
	># Set a Shade of Gray
	>COLOR(-16, -16, -16)
	># Set White

The final one of these combinations represents the UniPOPS default of white, and can be called upon any time by invoking the verb RSTCOLOR, which is equivalent to COLOR(-16, -16, -16). Thus if you want scan 1000 to be plotted in red, and scan 1001 to be overlaid on the same plot in white, type,

	>COLOR(-16, -1, -1)
	>GET 1001; RESHOW

NOTE : It is rather difficult to set a pleasing color scale in the RGB system, and for this the HIS system is recommended.

To provide a color in the HIS system, you supply values for the three arguments representing hue, intensity and saturation. There are 64 hue codes (numbered 0 through 63), 9 intensity codes (numbered 0 through 8), and 7 saturation codes (numbered 0 through 6). The full set of these codes, with an example of setting up a color scale, are detailed in Appendix I.

Defining Line Types for Displays

It is possible to define the "type of line" drawn in your displays by using the verb LINETYPE. LINETYPE defines the line types for PLOT, SHOW (in LINE mode), VCTR, RESHOW (in RLINE mode), BSHOW, RSHOW, GPARTS, and GDISPLAY displays. This verb takes one argument which is the sum of three numbers: a thickness code, a dash code, and a tick-mark code.

The thickness codes are:

			0,1 - Thin (DEFAULT)
			  2 - Slightly thick
			  3 - Medium thick
			  4 - Thick
			  5 - Very thick

The dash codes are:

		     0 - No dashes (DEFAULT)
		    10 - Large dashes and spaces
		    20 - Small dashes and spaces
		    30 - Large dashes and small spaces
		    40 - Large dash, small space, small dash, small
		    50 - Large dash, small space, small dash, small
		               space, small dash, small space
	            60 - Very small dashes and spaces
		    70 - Small dashes and large spaces
		    80 - Small dashes and very large spaces
		    90 - Very large dash, moderate space, small dot,
		    	      moderate space

The tick-mark codes are:

			  0 - No tick marks (DEFAULT)
			100 - Up/left going large ticks
			200 - Up/left going small ticks
			300 - Down/right going large ticks
			400 - Down/right going small ticks
			500 - Up/right going large arrows
			600 - Up/right going small, closely spaced
			700 - Down/left going small, widely spaced
			800 - Up/right going small, widely spaced
			            double arrows
		        900 - Inverted V's

Thus to specify a slightly-thick, dot-dash line with no ticks, the argument to LINETYPE would be 42 (i.e. 0 + 40 + 2). The code of the default line type is 0. In principle, 325 different line types are possible. Line types 0 and 1 are the same (for reasons that have to do with contour plots - see Section 16.7.5, line type 1 is required in order to be able to label think lines with no dashes or tick-marks on contour plots).

The current character size (see Section 6.4) will alter the spacing between dashes and ticks, and also the length of ticks.

Suppose that you want to overlay plots of the data in Arrays (0) and (1), with the second plot using a slightly-thick line having small arrows and a dash-dot-dot form (i.e. LINETYPE argument = 652), type,

	># Sets default line type.
	># Make the arrows and dashes smaller than normal.
	># Reset defaults

Plotting Multiple Scans on a Page

The verb SETPAGE defines where on the graphics screen the next display will go, and its total extent. SETPAGE is very useful if you wish to plot multiple spectra, contour plots, etc. on the same screen page. The syntax of the verb is,

	>SETPAGE(xlo, xhi, ylo, yhi)

	where, xlo and xhi define the x-limits of the plot in pixels,
	and ylo and yhi fulfill the same function for the y-limits.
	The full screen boundaries are pixels 1 to 1024 in x, and 1 to
	800 in y.

Suppose you want to plot a spectrum within pixels 100 to 500 in x and 400 to 800 in y, type,


If you place many plots on one page, you may choose to eliminate adding documentation and the labeling of tick marks by setting SLABEL = 0. The plot boundaries set by SETPAGE affect PLOT, SHOW and RESHOW, the two-dimensional display verbs described in Section 16.7, the size of characters plotted, and the verbs which use the results of the last display (FLAG, FCUR, GDISPLAY, GPARTS, etc.).

To reset the plot limits to full page display after using SETPAGE, the verb RSTPAGE is invoked.

As an example, suppose you want to draw a spectrum such that it fills the region x = 100 to 200; y = 100 to 200 (in pixels), and then plot a graph (see Section 6.9) within the region x = 300 to 500; y = 500 to 800, afterwards resetting the option to full screen display. Then type,

	>SETPAGE(100, 200, 100, 200)
	>SETPAGE(300, 500, 500, 800)

Of especial interest is that by a judicious choice of the plot limits, you can produce a display with spectra positioned on the screen according to their observed astronomical coordinates. For example, the following procedures (see Chapter 13) will make just such a plot for a five-point spectral-line map, where the five scan numbers are held on the stack (see Chapter 11) with the center position entered first,

     :# Places multiple spectra on one page according the position
     :# of observations
     :RAD = 45 / ATAN(1)
     :# XPIX... and YPIX are the number of pixels per degree on the
     :# sky in both the X and Y coord
     :# XSIZE and YSIZE are the number of pixels in X and Y directions
     :# that each spectra will take.

     :# Plots spectral-line 'tile" map.
     :# Assumes the central position is the first scan in ASTACK.
     :# NX, NY = number of scans you want to plot in the X and Y
     :#	directions on the screen
     :# DELTAX, DELTAY = Number of arcminutes between observations in
     :#	the X and Y directions.
     :XSIZE=512/NX; YSIZE=400/NY
     :# Calculate size of each tiled spectrum in pixels and the number
     :# of pixels per arc degree.
     :GET ASTACK(1)
     :# get the center scan
     :PLACE(1,20) CHAR(H0(OBJECT))
     :# Label the graph
     :# Set up center coords
     :# plot up the 5 spectra
     :# Reset default plot parameters

To use this procedure, type something like :

     ># Scans in 5 point map -- center is 500
     ># 3 plots in X and Y directions
     ># Scans are separated on the sky by 11.2 arcmin in X and Y
     ># Produces the display

You should also look at the on-line documentation on Tiles ("EXPLAIN TILES") for some useful procedures similar to the above examples.

Plotting Graphs

The verb PLOT enables you to plot the data in Array (0) against that in Array (1) on a one-to-one basis. Array (0) provides the y-values for the plot, while Array (1) provides the x-values. To set the x- and y-scales, there are two pairs of adverbs, XMINP and XMAXP, and YMINP and YMAXP. If XMINP = XMAXP, and/or YMINP = YMAXP, then the appropriate axis(es) is scaled to fit the full range of the appropriate data. Otherwise, the adverb pairs set the minimum and maximum values to plot in each axis. If XMINP < XMAXP, the x-scale increases to the right, while for YMINP < YMAXP, the y-scale increases upwards. For either condition reversed, the direction of increasing value on the appropriate axis(es) is reversed.

If the adverbs XLOGP and/or YLOGP are set to FALSE (-1), that axis(es) will be a linear representation. If either (or both) of these adverbs are set to TRUE (+1), then that axis(es) will be logarithmic representations.

If the last-called display "style" verb (see Section 6.2) was POINTS or HISTOGRAM, then the plot will consist of a set of points. If the verb LINE was the last invoked, a series of connected lines will be drawn (see Section 6.7).

Vertical and horizontal lines can be drawn on the plot using the 12-element array adverbs CMARK and TMARK (see Section 6.2). If ZLINE is set to TRUE (+1), the plot will contain a line drawn at y = 0. Three string adverbs allow one to label the axes and the overall plot. The 16-character strings XTITLE and YTITLE should be set to the captions chosen for the x- and y-axes respectively, with the 32-character string HTITLE fulfilling the same function for the overall plot title.

Suppose you wish to plot Tsys against air mass for a set of scans. The following Procedure could be used,

	:#Empty the Arrays (0) and (1) to store the plot data.
	:DEGTORAD = ACOS(-1.)/180.
	:#Now cycle thru the scans, using Array (2) to hold them.
	:	H0(NOINT) = H0(NOINT) + 1
	:	H1(NOINT) = H0(NOINT)
	:	D0(H0(NOINT)) = H2(STSYS)
	:	D1(H0(NOINT)) = 1./SIN(H2(EL)*DEGTORAD)
	:XTITLE = 'Air Mass'
	:YTITLE = 'Tsys (K)'
	:HTITLE = 'Tsys versus Air Mass'
	:#Linear plot, Auto-scaled.
	:#Now make the Plot.

To plot the system temperature versus air mass for scans 100 to 150, type,

	>TSYSPL(100, 150)

Problems with Your Graphics Screen

In the unlikely event of problems with your graphics screen, the pseudo verb KILLGRPH will destroy your current graphics screen and try to recreate another. Occasionally, it is necessary to execute KILLGRPH twice to really clean up the problem. If this does not solve the problem, exit the program and restart it. If you still have problems, get help from your system administrator.

Suppose you are getting bizarre behavior from your graphics screen, try typing,


and UniPOPS will ask you if you really want to kill the screen. If you answer yes, the graphics screen will be destroyed and a new one recreated.

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