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Specific Continuum Features

Most operations needed for continuum analysis have counterparts in spectral-line data reduction. Typical of these would be the fitting of baselines and Gaussians, general graphical display, data scaling, and the stacking of scans. As such, these have been discussed already in the appropriate chapters of this Cookbook. However, a number of UniPOPS verbs exist which are continuum-specific. Many of these can be used only with data acquired by either, or both of, the 140-ft or 12-m telescopes, and thus lack the global generality of many other UniPOPS verbs. In describing these verbs and their functions below, we will always point out to which telescope's data they are relevant. Many of these verbs are really most often invoked from a procedure. This is especially true for user of the 12-meter.

Atmospheric Tipping Scans

Total-power atmospheric tipping scans are a popular way of estimating the opacity of the atmosphere at higher frequencies. Antenna temperatures are measured at a number of air masses (where, air mass = sec(zenith angle)), and the results used to compute the zenith opacity, and often the receiver noise temperature. The UniPOPS sky-tip reduction verb SOLVETIP prints the derived values on the screen.

The tipping methods and the algorithms used by SOLVETIP for data from the 140-ft and 12-m telescopes differ, and the verb applies the appropriate algorithm to sky-tip data from either telescope. Further, for sky-tips taken with the 12-m telescope, a choice of different algorithms is available, and these are selected by the value of the adverb TYPETIP which should be set as follows,

TYPETIP = 1
This gives a linear least-squares solution to the "tipping equation". It assumes that the temperature scale is well calibrated, and the receiver, atmospheric and "warm-spillover" temperatures, plus the "warm-spillover" efficiency, are well known. (This method is known as TPTIP at the 12-m.)

The user must set the UniPOPS adverbs FTM (the ratio of the temperatures of the atmosphere and the ambient; default = 0.95), FTSBR (the ratio of the temperatures of the "warm spillover" and ambient; default = 0.95), ETA (the "warm-spillover" efficiency; default = 0.95), and TRCVR (the receiver temperature).

TYPETIP = 2
This assumes that the scan in Array (0) contains,

log( T(vane) - T(sky))

This quantity should be entered into Array (0), perhaps by a procedure, before calling SOLVETIP. (This method is known as SPTIP at the 12-m.)

TYPETIP = 3
This gives a non-linear least-squares solution. Be warned that the temperature scale MUST be accurately calibrated. The user must set the UniPOPS adverbs FTM (see TYPETIP = 1), FTSBR (see TYPETIP = 1), TVANE (the chopper vane temperature), and TAU0 (an initial guess for the zenith opacity). Further, if the UniPOPS adverb ETAFREE = 0, then the adverb ETA, (see TYPETIP = 1), is held fixed during the fit. In this case ETA has to be preset to its best-estimated value, or left at its default of 0.84. If ETAFREE = 1, ETA is a free parameter of the fit. If TAU0 is set to 0, SOLVETIP will estimate a first approximation for the zenith opacity making a preliminary solution as for TYPETIP = 2. (The method is known as STIP at the 12-m.)

For Green Bank data, no adverbs need be set. The results are stored in the adverbs TRCVR (the receiver temperature), and TAU0 (the zenith opacity).

As an example, suppose scan 1234 contains tipping data taken with the two-channel 90-GHz receiver on the 12-m telescope. To see the two independent estimates of zenith opacity for the two channels, you might type,

>TYPETIP =  1
>ETA = 0.9; FTM = 0.95; FTSBR = 1.0; TRCVR = 100.0
>GET 1234.01; SOLVETIP
>GET 1234.02; SOLVETIP

The Digital BackEnd (DBE) at the 12-m Telescope

At the 12-m telescope on Kitt Peak, continuum observations are made through a four-phase digital backend (DBE). The four switch phases of the DBE are defined to be,

P1 = SIGNAL    + CALIBRATION
P2 = REFERENCE + CALIBRATION
P3 = SIGNAL
P4 = REFERENCE

The raw data which these represent can then be converted into the following quantities,

SWITCHED POWER (SP) 	 = (P1 - P2 + P3 - P4) / 2
TOTAL POWER (TP)    	 = (P1 + P2 + P3 + P4) / 4
CALIBRATION SIGNAL (CAL) = (P1 + P2 - P3 - P4) / 2
ZERO LEVEL (ZERO)  	 = (P1 - P2 - P3 + P4)

A series of special verbs exist in UniPOPS for manipulating and calibrating 12-m telescope continuum data taken through the DBE. All these verbs operate on the scan currently in Array (0).

WARNING : Note well, that if any of the following five verbs have been used on a scan of raw DBE data, neither it, nor any of the other four, should be invoked again until AFTER a new scan of raw DBE data (or the same one) has been put in Array (0), say with GET. Ignoring this warning will result in nonsense !

FIXDBE

This verb is the most basic of the DBE verbs, and derives SP, TP, CAL and ZERO from the basic DBE phases of the scan in Array (0), leaving the solutions in Array (0), which does not change its size. After using FIXDBE, the SP values for the scan occupy the first quarter of Array (0), the TP values the second quarter, the CAL values the third, and the ZERO values the final quarter. Where the header contains a value for the zenith opacity, the SP, TP and ZERO values are corrected for atmospheric absorption, i.e. multiplied by exp(tau * cosec(elev)). The values of all quantities are in counts, and the UniPOPS adverb CALVAL is left containing the mean value of CAL for the scan.

Suppose you wished to have a first look at either SP, TP, CAL or ZERO for the data in some 12-m DBE scans, then you might use the following procedure,

>PROC DBE_DATA(SCAN_NO, DATA_MODE)
:SCALAR I_IND, I_PT, I_OFF
:GET SCAN_NO
:I_PT = H0(NOINT) / 4
:I_OFF = (DATA_MODE - 1) * I_PT
:FIXDBE
:FOR I_IND = 1 TO I_PT
:	D0(I_IND) = D0(I_IND + I_OFF)
:END
:H0(NOINT) = I_PT
:PAGE SHOW
:RETURN
:FINISH

For DATA_MODE, you would enter 1 for SP, 2 for TP, 3 for CAL, and 4 for ZERO. On completion, the selected quantity will be displayed graphically, and available in Array (0) for any other operation.

SWITCHED

This verb derives the switched-power signal, SP, from the DBE basic phases in Array (0). The result is left in Array (0), but there are only one quarter the number of points that were in the original scan. The resulting SP record will be corrected for atmospheric absorption, provided the header contains a value for zenith opacity. If a noise calibration signal is present, the final record is expressed in K, using the mean calibration height, and the value of the noise tube temperature held in the header (parameter TCAL). If there is no on-line calibration, SWITCHED tries to put the signal into K using the value of the control-program parameter DSF (header parameter RESTFREQ) set at observing time (see the "12-m User's Manual"). If a noise calibration is present, SWITCHED sets the header parameter STSYS to the system temperature in K, and the adverb CALVAL to the mean value of CAL for the scan. In the absence of a noise calibration, CALVAL is set to DSF.

Suppose that you have made beam-switched observations with the 12-m telescope and the DBE, and wish to look at your results for scan 1234. Then type,

>GET 1234
>SWITCHED PAGE SHOW

TOTALPWR

This verb derives the total-power signal, TP, from the DBE basic phases in Array (0). The result is left in Array (0), but there are only one quarter the number of points that were in the original scan. The resulting TP record will be corrected for atmospheric absorption, provided the header contains a value for zenith opacity. If a noise calibration signal is present, the final record is expressed in K, using the mean calibration height and the value of the noise tube temperature held in the header (parameter TCAL). If there is no on-line calibration, TOTALPWR tries to put the signal into K using the value of the control program parameter DSF (header parameter RESTFREQ) set at observing time (see the "12-m User's Manual"). If a noise calibration is present, TOTALPWR sets the header parameter STSYS to the system temperature in K, and the adverb CALVAL to the mean value of CAL for the scan. In the absence of a noise calibration, CALVAL is set to DSF

Suppose that you have made total-power observations with the 12-m telescope and the DBE, and wish to look at your results for scan 1236. Then type,

>GET 1236
>TOTALPWR PAGE SHOW

CALDBE

This verb derives the calibration height, CAL, from the DBE basic phases in Array (0). The result is left in Array (0), but there are only one quarter the number of points that were in the original scan. The resultant values are noise tube deflections in counts. The adverb CALVAL is set to the mean value of the noise tube deflections for the scan. The calibration factor (in K/counts), the noise tube temperature, and the mean noise tube deflection are printed on the screen (using the value of the noise tube temperature held in the header parameter TCAL).

Suppose that you have made switched-power observations with the 12-m telescope and the DBE, and wish to look at the noise tube height for scan 1234. Then type,

>GET 1234
>CALDBE PAGE SHOW

ZERO

This verb derives the zero-level, ZERO, from the DBE basic phases in Array (0). The result is left in Array (0), but there are only one quarter the number of points that were in the original scan. The resulting ZERO record will be scaled for atmospheric absorption, provided the header contains a value for zenith opacity. The final results are expressed in "scaled counts". The rms of the zero level is placed in the UniPOPS adverb VRMS, and printed on the screen.

Suppose you wish to look at the zero level for 12-m telescope DBE scan 1234. Then type,

>GET 1234
>ZERO PAGE SHOW

Continuum On-Off Data

A number of UniPOPS verbs exist that aid users to reduce continuum On-Off data taken with the NRAO telescopes. For the 140-ft, as for the now-defunct 300-ft telescope, On-Off scans consist of many cycles of "Off-On" pairs, terminated by the pattern "Off - Noise Source Cal - Off". At the 12-m telescope, On-Off scans consist of sequences of "Off-On-On-Off" cycles.

AVG and AVGD

The verb AVG will produce the source deflection and standard deviation for an On-Off scan made with the Green-Bank 140-ft or 300-ft telescopes, or the Kitt Peak 12-m telescope, where the scan is held in Array (0). AVG will handle data from an analog (standard) backend directly, or data from the 12-m digital backend (DBE) after prior processing by SWITCHED or TOTALPWR (see Sections 17.2.2 and 17.2.3). For Green Bank On-Offs, the mean deflection and rms are printed on the screen scaled into K. For 12-m On-Offs, the mean deflection and rms are printed scaled into K and Jy (first order), and the signal-to-noise ratio for the deflection is also given. AVG places the values of the mean source deflection and its rms into the header parameters, TSOURCE and TRMS respectively.

The verb AVGD is a subset of AVG for 12-m On-Off data. Again, prior processing with SWITCHED or TOTALPWR is obligatory. With AVGD, nothing is printed on the screen, but the values of the mean deflection and the rms are placed into the header parameters, TSOURCE and TRMS respectively, while the header parameter OFFSCAN is zeroed.

Suppose that you have a 12-m scan numbered 1234 which holds switched-power, On-Off data taken through the 12-m DBE. To print on the screen the mean source deflection, its rms, and the signal-to-noise ratio, type,

>GET 1234
>SWITCHED AVG

Evaluating and Editing On-Off Data

Sometimes you will wish to edit out from a scan one or more On-Off cycles which have been corrupted by equipment trouble, interference, atmospheric fluctuations, etc. To help evaluate your scan graphically, first display it with SHOW (see Chapter 6). You can then mark the "On samples" of the On-Off cycles using the verb ONS. A call to ONS will plot a plus (+) symbol on top of each "On". Thus, to help you evaluate 12-m DBE scan number 1236 which contains total-power, On-Off data, type,

>GET 1236
>TOTALPWR
>PAGE SHOW ONS

To give you a more quantitative idea of the data values within the scan, the verb TEMPS will list the source deflection for each On-Off cycle within the scan. Thus, to list the source deflection for each On-Off cycle of the scan that you have just plotted and marked with ONS, type,

>TEMPS

If you decide on the evidence of the above operations, that some On-Off cycles within the scan have been corrupted and should be excised, the verb SEDITS is used to deleted designated cycles. SEDITS takes two arguments, these being the sequential numbers within the scan of the first and last consecutive On-Off cycles that you wish to be deleted. If a number of non-contiguous On-Off cycles need to be deleted, SEDITS can be called more than once. SEDITS physically deletes the rejected cycles, and the remaining scan contains less data, as is easily seen by displaying the edited entity with SHOW. After deleting the relevant cycles, SEDIT recomputes the source deflection and its rms, placing these values in the header parameters, TSOURCE and TRMS respectively.

Suppose you have decided to excise On-Off cycles 3, 7, 8 and 9 from the above scan, type,

>SEDITS(3,3)
>SEDITS(7,9)
>PAGE SHOW

Five-Point Maps from the 12-m Telescope

At the 12-m telescope, five-point maps are used to estimate telescope pointing, and to obtain accurate flux density estimates for the stronger sources. For details of the technique, see the "12-m User's Manual". Each position measured in a five-point map has a separate scan number (in the order North, South, Center, East and West).

For five-point data reduction, call the verb PDOC, after placing the deflections for the five points in elements 1 to 5 of a "synthetic scan" in Array (0). These should be entered in Array (0) in the order of measurement, with the associated rms's having the same order in elements 6 to 10. For clarity, this "synthetic scan" should contain the scan number of the central scan within the header parameter SCAN. PDOC will complete the analysis of the results, and present the following,

• The source deflections at each of the five positions, plus their standard errors, in diagrammatic form.

• The azimuth and elevation offsets from the nominal pointing, and the peak heights of one-dimensional fitted Gaussians (corrected for the orthogonal offsets) for "beam-size constrained" and "free" Gaussian fits, Fitted Gaussian half-power widths are also given for the free fit. The fitted peak positions are plotted on the five-point map.

• The corrected azimuth and elevation pointing offsets that should be used for further observations in that part of the sky.

Suppose that at the 12-m telescope you have made a five-point map through the DBE in switched-power mode, the central scan of which is numbered 3582. To obtain the results for this observation you could use the following procedure,

>PROCEDURE FIVE_PT(CENT_SCAN)
:SCALAR I_IND, I_OBS
:I_OBS = 1
:FOR I_IND = (CENT_SCAN  - 2) TO (CENT_SCAN + 2)
:	GET I_IND
:	SWITCHED
:	IF (I_OBS = 1)THEN
:		COPY(0,1)
:		H1(SCAN) = H1(SCAN) + 2
:		H1(NOINT) = 10
:	END
:	AVGD
:	D1(I_OBS) = H0(TSOURCE)
:	D1(I_OBS + 5) = H0(TRMS)
:	I_OBS = I_OBS + 1
:END
:COPY(1,0)
:PDOC
:RETURN
:FINISH

To then analyze the five-point map for the second receiver, type,

>FIVE_PT(3582.02)

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